The Arctic beyond fiction (p.II)

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ALAFF continues to publish translations from the book «The Arctic beyond fiction«. This time it’s a chapter dedicated to architectural projects for construction in the High North, developed by Soviet (and not only) architects back in the 30s-60s of the last century. Fantastic cities in the conditions of the Arctic cold, unfortunately, have remained a pipe dream of humanity. However, we can appreciate the courage and ambition of the architects who designed such cities. After all, who knows — maybe in the future these projects will be revived and implemented…


 

Architecture of the North

The Arctic is rich in various resources, is of great scientific interest, it affects various aspects of life on the entire planet. But the harsh climate and long polar night become a significant obstacle for a human. Life and work at the polar stations is akin to a feat, and polar explorers become real heroes. It is not surprising, therefore, that projects have emerged designed to make human life in the Arctic not just comfortable, but independent of the effects of adverse environmental factors. Since 1956, the Leningrad branch of the Academy of Construction and Architecture of the USSR (ACaA) developed the complex theme «Construction in the High North» — a scientifically based concept of building in the Polar Region new types of settlements that are fundamentally different from the existing ones. Within the framework of the topic, individual areas were being worked out — the creation of new types of residential complexes, neighborhoods, individual houses, enterprises, and recreation areas for the population. We will consider some ideas of architects that were never implemented in practice.

The experience of the «North Pole-1» first research drifting station made us think about creating a real research complex in order to make the work of the polar explorers not only more efficient, but also safe and comfortable. Active shipping along the Northern Sea Route and extensive land development outside the Arctic Circle pushed for the development of special cities, the dome structures of which would allow living in a more comfortable climate. Let’s get acquainted with these projects.

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Friendly caricature of the artist V.I. Fomichev «Pole in the near future». The weather factory, the drifting Academy of Sciences, and Pole mall — the North Pole is suitable for life. (Pole laughs. M., 1938. P.16.)
Vasily Ivanovich Fomichev (13.1.1908 — 1998) — famous Soviet graphic artist, caricaturist, member of the Union of Artists of the USSR. Honored Artist of the RSFSR (1966). Until the mid-1930s, he lived and worked in Sverdlovsk — in the editorial offices of the newspapers «On the shift!» and «Ural worker». At the All-Union competition for the best caricature organized by «Komsomolskaya Pravda», Fomichev was awarded, in 1936 he was invited to work at «Komsomolskaya Pravda» in Moscow, and two years later — [he was invited] to the editorial office of the «Moscow Bolshevik». From that time on he became a permanent artist of the «Moskovskaya Pravda» and «Komsomolskaya Pravda». Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Fomichev served in the ranks of the Red Army as part of the editorial offices of the front and army newspapers, he was awarded several orders and medals. After the war, he headed the satirical section of the «Gudok» newspaper, from 1949 — deputy editor of the «Illustrated Newspaper», from 1953 — art editor of the «Soviet Sailor» magazine, he also collaborated with other publications. The personal exhibitions of the artist’s works in Moscow on the themes of international politics (1978, 1983, 1985) were held with great success. The theme of the Arctic was present in his works of the late 1930s.

 

Polar sphere of Pavel Grokhovsky

The editors of the “Technology to Youth” magazine in number 4 for 1938 announced a competition for the best science fiction stories for the section “Dreams of Youth” [1]. Stories were collected for publication in the anniversary issue dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the Komsomol. Wanting to make it easier for readers to choose the topic and method of presentation, the editors put several notes under the general title “A window into the future”. Each note is devoted to one topic, briefly outlined, illustrated with drawings; however, its author made an attempt to substantiate his claims. In this section, P.I. Grokhovsky published his article entitled “The Polar Sphere” in one of the issues of the journal. Just at that time, the whole country talked about the heroic wintering of Papanin‘s polar team, which allowed to get full and accurate information about the Arctic and its nature. Previously, such observations were impossible, since the ships on which scientists were rushing to the North could not go far enough into high latitudes due to the threat of ice compression. The need for such stations to work was obvious, so P.I. Grokhovsky proposed “to create absolutely safe structures that are not afraid of any compression, [and] which could drift in the ice for several years in a row” [2]. The inventor called the sphere the most convenient form of such a structure.

What was this polar station in the presentation of P.I. Grokhovsky? “The sphere can be made of steel, of light alloys, or of wood. For greater guarantee, the seams of the sphere are sealed with rivets or welding. To increase the durability inside a sphere the frames are passed. Over the entire surface of the sphere is a series of sealed hatches that can open and close. The sphere should not be submerged above the center. Only under such conditions, when the ice is compressed, it will always be displaced upwards [from the water]. The sphere’s diameter depends on the number of passengers and the planned drift duration… Ten people can live culturally in its premises, having a supply of food and fuel for three to four years” [3].

A hemisphere, located inside, or the inner sphere with a “truncated upper part” should have been ensure the stability of the sphere. Inside the hemisphere — several floors with different rooms. On its deck — a plane with folding wings, snowmobiles of amphibian type, several sledges, sled dogs, searchlights, windmills, a small motorboat, closed-type tents, tools. Under the deck — laboratories for scientific studies, cabins, workshop, etc. Below the floor there are “oil-fired boilers”. At the very bottom of the hemisphere are all goods — food and materials warehouse.

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The structure and operation of the polar sphere. Drawings of A. Preobrazhensky and S. Lodygin. Technology to Youth. 1938. № 7. P. 36-37.

The icebreaker delivers the sphere on the ice floe. An ice floe suitable for the polar station must first be found. While the drift conditions are favorable, “the sphere crew breaks up the camp on the ice floe, sets up windmills, which will charge the sphere’s batteries with electric energy”. As soon as the danger appears, the whole camp is curtailed, the crew goes into the sphere, and its hatches are sealed. This solves the problem of survival of researchers, if natural conditions lead to the fact that the ice breaks and the sphere falls into the water: “Being in a hemisphere rotating inside the sphere, the crew will not experience almost any pitching even during the most severe storm” [4]. The sphere is not a ship, so at the end of the expedition an icebreaker was to come after it. This idea remained an idea — its implementation was too complicated, but it received a new impetus.

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Polar sphere of P. Grokhovsky. Image by S. Lodygin. Technology to Youth. 1938. № 7.

Following the polar sphere P.I. Grokhovsky proposed to create a bathystat. The inventor presented it as a large sphere, in which there are laboratories, a library, an engine room with a device that supplies clean air, and machines that generate electricity. The sphere could float like a bobber. A mine was attached to its lower part, consisting of “a whole series of cylindrical pipes interconnected” in such a way that “the mine can be extended to arbitrary limits, depending on the depth of the chosen place” [5]. The idea of ​​the bathystat was based on the use of bathyspheres — “spherical devices that fell into the sea depth on the cables”. Compared with the bathysphere, the bathystat was more comfortable and safer. Using it also made it possible to observe underwater life and “establish direct communication between the seabed and the surface” [6].

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Bathystat of P. Grokhovsky. Drawings of A. Preobrazhensky and S. Lodygin. Technology to Youth. 1938. No. 6. Pp. 46-47.

These proposals of P.I. Grokhovsky were not implemented — they are rather aimed at the development of creative thought and imagination than of practical value. It is noteworthy that in the works of the classics of Russian fiction, the Strugatsky brothers, one can find a description of a sphere that was used for the benefit of human development — an even more fantastic sphere, “a mechano embryo”, which may be converted into a “hermetic residential dome for six people, with a tambour and an oxygen filter”. The sphere in the work of the Strugatsky [brothers] was intended for the study and development of other planets, but its tests were carried out on the Northern Kuril Islands on Earth [7].

 

Northern Combine

At the end of 1938, an article by engineer B. Shumyatsky about a thermoelectrochemical combine in Spitsbergen was published in the magazine “Technique to Youth” in the rubric “Window to the Future”. The author called it “the heart of the socialist North”. As part of an editorial competition about the future of Soviet science and technology, he talked about how the power station and the village in the archipelago were transformed in 25 years.

7 km from the Spitsbergen airfield, a northern resort appeared — “a green island surrounded by bluish snow”: “It differed from the resorts of the Caucasus and Crimea except for its modest size. We saw here in the far North pyramidal cypresses, fragrant magnolias, creepers and palm trees. Around the large pond were baths and beaches”.

Soviet scientist, military engineer, professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences Boris Yakovlevich Shumyatsky (1914 — 15.8.1982) was the son of a major party worker. He graduated from the Rabfak (1931), MPEI (1936), worked as an engineer at the [MPEI] institute. From 1940 he served in the Red Army, from 1944 — in the Zhukovsky AFEA in engineering and teaching positions. Then he headed the department at the Institute of Military Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He was a specialist in the field of experimental aerodynamics, thermal physics, power engineering, winner of the Stalin Prize (1951), Honored Scientist and Technician of the RSFSR.

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Thermal Power Combine — the heart of the socialist North. Technology to Youth. 1938. № 10. P. 61.

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Northern resort on Spitsbergen. Technology to Youth. 1938. № 10. P. 60.

Here one could sunbathe under the rays of the electric “sun”. Despite the fact that the air temperature exceeded 25 degrees Celsius, it was not hot on the beach — a fresh, light breeze was blowing” [8]. The ability to create this northernmost resort in the world arose thanks to the work of the thermoelectrochemical combine located on the opposite bank of a pond in several small buildings. The combine produced high-quality cement for construction in the North, nitrogen fertilizers, sulfuric acid and other chemical products.

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The control room of thermal power combine. Technology to Youth. 1938. № 10. P. 63.

The central part of the combine was a power plant, whose power reached 300 thousand kW. Shale was burned in plant’s fireboxes, and the ash became a wonderful natural cement. The steam produced in the boilers rotated the turbines and then went to heating. Thus, almost all the heat extracted from the fuel was used at the combine. The efficiency of the installation was close to 100% [9]. All this also led to compact placement of units, the absence of huge chimneys and air pollution. The management of the whole combine was concentrated in the control room, while the work of all mechanisms was automated. This beautiful and courageous fantasy of a young engineer remained just a dream of the future.

 

The Arctic: houses-villages, houses-cities…

Thanks to the research work of the Leningrad branch of the Academy of Construction and Architecture of the USSR (ACaA), by the end of the 1950s, a draft of the Rules and regulations for the planning and development of populated areas of the Far North was created [10], and in 1960, draft proposals for building small settlements were developed [11]. The architects raised the number of floors of houses to 3-6 floors, designed buildings that combined living spaces and institutions, as well as trade and household combines. The techniques of planning and building settlements were aimed at creating a relaxed microclimate in a populated area due to compact construction, reasonable orientation of buildings, etc. But if at first, in the centers of the villages, various institutions sought to locate, and along the perimeter — residential buildings, using them as defensive structures (even houses-quarters were designed by architects S.V. Trofimov and A.K. Sidorov), then they decided conditions of the Extreme North “are best met by the reception of the planning and development of populated areas without ordinary streets, with light, covered galleries replacing them and with the most enlarged service institutions” [12]. It was assumed two methods of organizing housing: 1) a group of residential buildings and a group of public buildings connected by external galleries with light fences and internal corridors and passages; 2) a group of residential buildings united with a community center through sheltered transport and pedestrian paths. The choice depended on the number of people who would live in this place. The floors of the buildings could be increased to 12-15 floors when staying in the northern city of about 10 thousand people.

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Sketch of the city of Frobisher Bay, 1957. ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. 17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 55.

Soviet architects took into account foreign experience also. For example, in Antarctica, the American base “Old Pole” was built (later renamed to “Amundsen-Scott” station): premises for various purposes connected by a network of walkways under snow and ice. The French base on Adélie Land consisted of three round corps connected by passages. In Greenland, Camp Century camp was of interest: premises under the ice in which one could live, work and relax. There was a project of the Arctic city of Luleå by Swedish architect Ralph Erskine — a complex of open and closed spaces providing convenient communication within the city, as well as the Canadian city of Frobisher Bay (architects V. Gardner and W. Fencott, 1957), in which the community center is covered with a dome and is surrounded by 36 round tower houses [13]. Projects of Canadians and Swedes were not implemented.

Proposals of Soviet architects were aimed at the reconstruction of the existing cities of the Arctic. Thus, architect K.N. Agafonov with the participation of S.P. Odnovalov proposed a new type of Amderma building: a reduction of the area by 15 times while creating reliable protection from the harsh nature and climate.

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General view of the French Antarctic base in Adélie Land (architect V. Bodinsky, M. Marré). ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. 17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 45.

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This is how the architect K.N. Agafonov imagined the renewed Amderma. 1958-1959. ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. 17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 35.

It was proposed to give the new houses a round shape, and on the first floors to place institutions to serve residents. The project looked too fantastic. In addition, the infrastructure of Amderma has already developed.

New quarters were designed for both Vorkuta and Norilsk. The basis of their planning was the idea of combining all the buildings with a system of covered pedestrian paths, which are a continuation of the first floors of each house. The buildings themselves should be located in the direction of the prevailing winter winds, have a rounded shape and be elevated above the ground.

In the Leningrad branch of the ACaA it was the architects S.P. Odnovalov and M.V. Tsimbal who worked on the project for creating special houses for the North — houses-neighborhoods, in which the life of Soviet people would be filled with warmth and light, so necessary beyond the Arctic Circle. They created a detailed project of an experimental residential building “made of aluminum and plastics” for Norilsk (1961). It was not only a drawing of the building, but also the idea of creating and operating a fundamentally new living space in the North, the introduction of which could be started in Norilsk or where the village still needs to be built. The architects also presented their ideas in a small article for the readers of the magazine “Technology to Youth”.

Architects believed that residential buildings in the North should resemble gigantic cylinders connected by a promenades to the space under a transparent dome. Under the dome — “a magnificent winter garden with green hats of trees and bushes, with sports fields, a stadium and light buildings of the music hall, with a restaurant and cafe”. In fact, it is the “city street”, its social center.

Stanislav Pavlovich Odnovalov (born 1934) — Leningrad and Petersburg architect, graphic artist. He supervised the reconstruction of the stadium «Petrovsky» (1994); the author of architectural solutions for the installation of monuments in St. Petersburg to Alexander II (2003), T.G. Shevchenko (2000), A. Brusilov (2007), busts to D.D. Shostakovich (1997), A. Mitskevich (1998), A.S. Pushkin (1999), A.G. Rubinstein (2005).

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Title page of the scientific report by S.P. Odnovalov and M.V. Tsimbal «Experimental residential house of aluminum and plastics for the city of Norilsk». ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. 17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 1.

Why cylindrical houses? The authors of the project explained this as follows: “The perimeter of the outer walls in a cylindrical house is 20% less than in an ordinary [house]… It means that the heat loss through the walls is significantly reduced, and one’s managed to significantly reduce the length of the wiring of all sanitary and technical communications. The cylindrical shape of the building also creates better streamlining with gusts of wind. Therefore, the house is very stable during storms and blizzards. The cylindrical building will also be less snowbound. It was decided to make a multi-storey house because it reduces the area of the foundations, the erection of which on permafrost soils presents considerable complexity and is expensive” [14]. Houses were assembled from elements made “of light and durable aluminum alloys”. Exterior walls — “[made] of aluminum panels with the use of plexiglass and high-performance insulating gaskets”. 15-storey residential buildings with special racks raised above the ground to a height of 3m.

The promenade galleries would allow people to live and work without being constantly exposed to the cold. In order to maintain the temperature in the city, at which people would feel normal, and trees and bushes grow, a special heating system was created. Large hydropower plants built on Siberian rivers would give the city the necessary electricity. Then, special cameras, taking the outside air, would heat it with electric appliances. Already after that, the heat would fall into the living premises. Also, the rooms would be heated with the thinnest electric batteries hidden in the walls. Part of the warm air would come under the dome of the garden and the streets of the city. But the main climate of the garden and streets was planned to create with lamps of infrared radiation.

Outside the settlement, walking paths, playgrounds, roads, and ramps would be arranged. Moreover, it was assumed that they would be raised above the ground so that “the natural surface would be intact and would be well blown out”. People could walk along the footbridge “far to the mountains or the tundra, where sports bases and rest houses are arranged in picturesque places” [15]. In such towns-villages could live about 10 thousand inhabitants.

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General view of the residential complex (village-city for 10 thousand inhabitants) according to the project of S.P. Odnovalov and M.V. Tsimbal. ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 67.

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View of the new residential complex from the airport side. ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 69.

In the North, there are small settlements in which a smaller number of residents live (from 500 to 1500 people). The authors of the project offered the following option for them: “…a cylindrical residential house is used, united by a transition with service buildings… it is enough to have one residential house-tower and a relatively small community center. The village, which has 1-1.5 thousand inhabitants, should have 3 residential houses of the tower type, connected by transitions to the public center” [16]. Work on the project of such houses continued in the Leningrad branch of the ACaA of the USSR, but the ideas of building [such] settlements and cities were not implemented.

At the same time, in the early 1960s, the engineers N. Pershin and Y. Pivovarov presented the design of a ring high-rise block-building. The authors were familiar with the ideas of S.P. Odnovalov and M.V. Tsimbal, but believed that the north is still not so densely populated. For very small villages (about 500 people and less) other design solutions are needed. Engineers proposed to create a four-storey house, which in the plan “resembles a closed ring with an outer diameter of 51m and an inner one — 26m”: “The windows open both inward and outward of the ring. A transparent dome rises above the building, which overlaps the inner courtyard that forms in the middle of the ring — a wonderful resting place for residents of a residential village in the conditions of a 7-8 month polar winter” [17]. Northerners would live and work in the same house, where there are also utilities, a canteen and a shop. The ring shape, like the cylindrical one in the previous project, would reduce the construction costs, would be more resistant to the effects of the northern snowstorm and wind.

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Blooming cities of the Arctic. Image by V. Kashchenko. Technology to Youth. 1961. № 9. 4th cover page.

As we can see, the draft designs were approaching the stage of implementation. Let’s recall that the main methods of organizing settlements in the North were already formulated (1963). S.P. Odnovalov and M.V. Tsimbal continued to develop these ideas. A few more draft versions of townships and microdistricts of existing cities (Vorkuta and Magadan) were created. At last, a sketch of the Deputatsky settlement was prepared at the Leningrad branch of the ACaA, and at the “Yakutniproalmaz” Institute — a sketch of the Aykhal settlement [18].

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City of the future in the Arctic. Young technician. 1962. № 8.

Later, when building new quarters in the northern cities, the surveys of Leningrad architects were taken into account, but their bold projects were not destined to be realized. They were too complicated to implement. In Yakutia, on the top of a hill between the village of Aykhal and the local airfield, as a monument to the previous era, the pile field of the not-built city under the dome near the Arctic Circle remained.

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Village in one house. Image by artist F. Borisov to the article by N. Pershin and Y. Pivovarov. Technology to Youth. 1963. No. 2.

Somewhat later, in 1965, a group of Moscow architects and engineers (A. and E. Shipkovy, A. Popov, A. Gavrilin, with the participation of students of the Moscow Architectural Institute T. Adlerova, M. Bogdanova, S. Dobrovolskaya, V. Orlovskiy, O. Tsimgan) put forward the idea of building a residential structure in the form of a pyramid. Such a form, in their opinion, was best adapted to the uncomfortable conditions of the North. According to the project, the pyramidal structure provided a comfortable stay for 2041 people. The first floor is a public one, the rest were intended for people and technical equipment. The idea did not receive further development. And in 1968, Corresponding Member of the RAS, Doctor of Technical Sciences P.P. Budnikov proposed to create for the polar city a dome made of pneumatic structures using membranes. He called his idea “Polar Venice”. The design would use warm air, provide warming of the soil, install powerful light emitters, which would further change the landscape and climate (but only under the dome) [19]. Unfortunately, P.P. Budnikov in the same year died.

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General view of the village for 500 inhabitants, for 1000-1500 inhabitants, for 2500-5000 inhabitants according to the project of S.P. Odnovalov and M.V. Tsimbal. ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 467. Л. 94. Л. 96. Л. 98.

 

Shift settlement in the Far North

In the early 1980s, a young architect, A. Knyazev, developed a project proposal for the arrangement of the near future shift camp — “a place of life and work activity for work shifts serving the processing plant and the rare metals mine in the conditions of the Far North”. According to his plan, the shift camp was naturally divided into several functional zones: the scientific zone was supposed to have a laboratory physico-chemical building, a magnetic ionospheric station, cosmic ray detectors, a gamma telescope under a spherical shell, and a technical unit — an electrothermal unit and air conditioners; the biozone included a poultry house, greenhouses and a winter garden — palm reserve; in the sports and recreation zone it was planned to place several sports buildings; and finally, the residential zone could consist of four hotel-type houses (in each house there are 96 single and double rooms for 144 people, as well as a first-aid post, a library, etc.) and kitchen factory (the same building has a dining room, restaurant, billiard room and cinema). Also a transport and communication zone were planned, where there are aircraft hangars, snowmobile garages, a radio dispatch tower, radio and television receiving and transmitting antennas, a radar. The zone where the shift workers work, — the production zone, — was designed to include a processing plant, a mine department building with Aeroflot cash registers, a coffee shop, a shop, a communications center, a savings bank, and a helipad on the roof of the building. This area is adjacent to the warehouse area with stocks of products, parts and clothing.

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«I see the northern city». Image by A. Knyazev. Technology to Youth. 1982. № 10.

Since the village was located in the tundra, a number of its structures had the original constructive solution: “Palm reserve is made of laminated aluminum panels in the form of a paraboloid of rotation. The building is designed for increased temperature and humidity conditions and is provided with a double floor with an additional stainless steel tray. Coatings of the hangar and spherical shells of the processing plant are made of aluminum with convex or collapsing pyramid ribs” [20].

At the same time, a graduation project by V. Alesh was prepared at the Novosibirsk Institute of Civil Engineering under the leadership of candidate of architecture V. Simagin, in which, like in the project of A. Knyazev, the possibility of creating dome structures for regions with low temperature conditions was considered.

These projects were not implemented — they turned out to be too costly and technically difficult. Researcher E.A. Kalemeneva notes that Soviet architecture developed along the lines of Western European tendencies, but “the state did not at all undertake to be serious about” complex projects for building cities in the High North, although it nevertheless began to “listen to the needs of the inhabitants of these cities, striving to improve their way of life” [21]. Construction of the Aykhal village was mothballed. The dome design was built only by American architects: the aluminum unheated “tent” was built in 1975 in Antarctica at the “Amundsen-Scott” station. It housed a post office, a shop and a pub. But the construction of the dome was unsuccessful, and clearing (it was quickly covered with snow) was expensive. The construction since 2003 is not used and is only a showplace.

In September 2011, at the International Arctic Forum in Arkhangelsk, organized by the Russian Geographical Society, the project of the city of Umka was presented (the author is the honored architect of the Russian Federation V.N. Rzhevsky). “Umka” is the world’s only project of a city with an artificial climate, the existence of which will be ensured by a dome-shaped structure, resembling the International Space Station in external outlines. It was supposed that it would be created on the Kotelny Island (the New Siberian Islands archipelago) [22].


[1] To all readers // Technology to Youth. 1938. No. 4. P. 57

[2] Grokhovsky P. Polar Sphere // Technology to Youth. 1938. № 7. P. 36.

[3] Grokhovsky P. Polar Sphere // Technology to Youth. 1938. № 7. P. 36-37.

[4] Grokhovsky P. Polar Sphere // Technology to Youth. 1938. № 7. P. 37.

[5] Grokhovsky P. Bathystat / Image by. A. Preobrazhensky and S. Lodygin. Technology to Youth. 1938. No. 6. P. 46.

[6] ibid. P. 47.

[7] Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. The White Cone of the Alaid. M., 1959.

[8] Shumyatsky B. Northern combine // Technology to Youth. 1938. № 10. P. 60.

[9] ibid. P. 62.

[10] ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 428, 429.

[11] Villages and neighborhoods for the Far North. D., 1960: ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 443.

[12] Scientific report on the topic «Construction in the Extreme North», Section 1 «Methods of planning and building settlements of the Far North», November 1963 / Under the leadership of B.V. Muravyov and T.V. Rimsky-Korsakova: Ibid. Д. 481. Л. 60-61. See also: Scientific report on the topic “Construction in the conditions of the Far North”: Baseline provisions and recommendations on the composition of the building, July 1963 / Under the leadership of B.V. Muravyov and T.V. Rimsky-Korsakova. Ibid. Д. 479.

[13] ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 476. Л. 39-64.

[14] Odnovalov S., Tsimbal M. Blossoming Cities of the Polar Region // Technology to Youth. 1961. № 9. P. 38.

[15] Odnovalov S., Tsimbal M. Blossoming Cities of the Polar Region // Technology to Youth. 1961. № 9. P. 39.

[16] ibid. The same ideas were presented by O. Nosov for younger readers in the magazine «Young Technician»: Nosov O., A City with an Artificial Climate // Young Technician. 1962. No. 8. Pp. 22-24.

[17] Pershin N., Pivovarov Y. Settlement in one house // Technology to Youth. 1963. No. 2. P. 37.

[18] Scientific report on the topic «Construction in the Far North», Section 1 «Receptions of planning and development of populated areas of the Far North». L., 1963: ЦГАНТД СПб. Ф. р-17. Оп. 2-2. Д. 481. Л. 62-72.

[19] Platonov G.D., Chernykh B.V. Futurology and housing problems. On some theoretical concepts and trends in architectural search // Construction and architecture of Leningrad. 1969. No. 2. Pp. 24-25.

[20] Knyazev A. Village beyond the Arctic Circle // Technology to Youth. 1982. № 10. P. 21.

[21] Kalemeneva E.A. Cities under the dome: Soviet architects and the development of the Far North in the 1950s-1960s // Bulletin dea Deutsches Historisches Institut Moskau Nr.7: Constructing the «Soviet»? 2013. P. 107-108.

[22] The project of the polar city «Umka»: to conquer the Arctic, to amaze the British // Unknown World. 2011. October 26: http://tainy.net/25277-proekt-polyarnogo-goroda-umka-pokorit-arktiku-porazit-anglichan.html; Samovalova O. Like on a spacecraft // Vzglyad. Business newspaper. 2011. September 22: https://vz.ru/economy/2011/9/22/524545.html

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